ADVANCE BASE: The next greater (closer to home) base: usually used in reference to a runner’s next base from the base occupied at the time-of-pitch, but can mean the next base from a runner’s position on the base paths, such as when a throw goes out of play.
ADVANTAGEOUS FOURTH (OR FIFTH) OUT: An out that supersedes a third out, allowed so that the defense has recourse against a runner’s violation of the rules during a play that apparently ends a half-inning or the game. [7.10(d)]
AIRBORNE: A pitched or batted ball that has not yet touched the ground, an unnatural object, or a person other than a fielder [2.00] [5.09] [6.06(b)]. If an airborne ball touches a fielder or fielders, or natural object, it remains airborne. An airborne batted ball is also known as a “fly” or “fly ball.”
BUNT: A batted ball not swung at but intentionally met with the bat by the batter in a try to tap the ball into the infield. [2.00]
CALLING TIME: Only an umpire can CALL time. Players can REQUEST time. If the umpire does not GRANT time and a batter steps out of the batter’s box, it can be called a strike or ball and NO time needs to be GRANTED.
CONSECUTIVE RUNNER: A runner who occupies a base at the time-of-pitch while each lesser base is also occupied (first base=1, second base=2, third base =3, home=4). Thus, Runner is always consecutive because there is no lesser base, R2 is only consecutive with R1 and R3 is only consecutive with R2 and R1. The term “consecutive” is employed to allow a distinction between runners who will be forced if the batter becomes a batter-runner (consecutive) and runners who have been forced because the batter has become a batter-runner. During on-field discussions, all such runners should be referred to as forced.
CONTINUOUS ACTION: An uninterrupted progression of play starting with the pitch and ending typically when the runners have ceased trying to advance, and the defense has relaxed and is returning or has returned the ball to the pitcher or the pitcher’s mound. Continuous action is defined as such to distinguish it from a “play” which can disallow an appeal.
DOUBLE PLAY: Continuous action during which two offensive players are put out.[2.00]
FRINGE INFIELDER: An infielder other than the pitcher and catcher (first baseman, second baseman, third baseman and shortstop), defined as such for the purpose of defining interference when a batted ball passed an “infielder.”
IN-CONTACT: Status of a pitcher who possesses a live ball and has stepped onto the pitching rubber for the purpose of taking the windup or stretch position.
INFIELDER: A defensive player who positions himself at the time-of-pitch such that he will easily have a play on the batter-runner at first on a ground ball. Normally there are four fielders who are always considered infielders: first baseman, second baseman, third baseman and shortstop. The pitcher and catcher are considered infielders unless otherwise specified. In rare cases, for the purpose of awarding bases on an overthrow, an infielder, due to positioning and the development of a play, may end up being considered an outfielder, and vice versa. See also “outfielder”
LINE DRIVE: An airborne batted ball that goes sharp and direct from the bat into the field of play and possesses no noticeable arc. [2.00]
LODGED BALL: A baseball that remains on the playing field but has become wedged, stuck, lost, unreachable, etc. If a ball impacts something, stops abruptly, and does not fall or roll immediately, it has lodged. Exceptions: A ball that becomes stuck in a glove remains in play. The glove/ball combination is treated as a live ball. A batted or thrown ball (does not include a pitched ball) that enters a player or coach’s uniform or the catcher’s gear is treated differently than other lodged balls. When a batted or thrown ball enters a player’s uniform or catcher’s gear the ball is dead. The umpire must employ COMMON SENSE AND FAIRNESS and place the runners such that the act of the becoming dead is nullified. The umpire may not, however, enforce any outs that may have occurred had the ball remained live. Outs occurring before the ball went out of play stand. [5.10]
ON DECK: It is a circle 5′ in diameter and 13′ from home plate in foul territory on both the home and visitor side of the diamond.
ON DECK HITTER: A future batter. One and only one is allowed in the on deck circle. There should be one on deck at all times (in amateur baseball this may not always be the case). Make sure there is only one out there. Why only one? If you have two it is a violation. However in amateur baseball you may have two batters out there thinking it is okay. We tell them only one and send the other one in the dugout or on the bench. WHY? If one is hit by a live ball you have a problem and an argument. Avoid the argument if you keep one in the circle. It keeps you out of trouble.
Know that coaches and players must be in uniforms that are similar in color, trim and style. However, the manager is not required to wear a uniform by Rule.
Remember Connie Mack wore a business suit. In amateur baseball the uniform rule may not be practical. (check with specific league regulations) It certainly would not be in the spirit of the game if some players have different color uniforms, etc. in the amateur game. We have worked games where some players uniforms were different colors and we allowed it. You should ask the coaches at the pregame conference about specific league rules if you notice it. If after the game starts you are questioned, get the two managers together and make sure it is okay and not in violation of a specific league rule.
OUTFIELDER: A defensive player who positions himself far enough away in the outfield at the time-of-pitch that he will most likely not have a play on the batter-runner at first on a ground ball. Normally there are three outfielders; left fielder, center fielder and right fielder. In rare cases, for the purpose of awarding bases on an overthrow, an infielder, due to positioning and the development of a play, may end up being considered an outfielder, and vice versa. See also “infielder”
OVERTHROW: A throw that enters dead ball territory or becomes lodged (other than in a glove, a player or coach’s uniform, or the catcher’s gear)
PERSON: A player or umpire’s body, as well as his hat, helmet, uniform, shoes, protective gear, etc., worn correctly and normally. [2.00]
PASSED BALL: A pitch that the catcher fails to stop or catch by his own fault.
PITCHOUT: A strategic move in which the pitcher pitches away from the batter, providing the catcher with a better chance of playing on a runner.
PIVOT FOOT: A right-handed pitcher’s right foot and a left-handed pitcher’s left foot. [2.00]
RUNDOWN: A play in which a runner is chased between two bases by one or more fielders who have the ball and are trying to tag him out. [2.00]
SUICIDE SQUEEZE: Offensive maneuver in which R3 (runner on 3rd) is running toward home and the batter is attempting to bunt a ball for the purpose of preventing R3’s out [2.00]
THE BALL: There are a few things we feel are important for an umpire to know about a pitched ball:
If a pitched ball touches the ground on the way to the batter and the plate:
A. It is called a ball (even if it goes through the strike zone)
B. It touches the batter he is awarded first base
C. The batter swings after two strikes the ball cannot be caught [6.05 & 6.09]
D. The batter hits the ball the action would be as if the ball did not hit the ground (If a batter hits a home run it is a home run, base hit, foul ball, etc.)
THROW: to be distinguished from a pitch.
(a) Intentionally propelled with arm and hand or glove from one player toward another (other than in a pitch)
(b) Possessed by a fielder on LBT but accidentally dropped on DBT, intentionally deflected or propelled into DBT by a fielder or intentially carried into DBT.
TIME-OF-PITCH: The moment an in-contact pitcher commits to pitch. (TOP)